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带你遍赏钢铁家族中各种组织(形貌、生长特点及性能)

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带你遍赏钢铁家族中各种组织(形貌、生长特点及性能)

  • 分类:专有技术
  • 作者:
  • 来源:
  • 发布时间:2019-03-23 14:22

带你遍赏钢铁家族中各种组织(形貌、生长特点及性能)

钢铁由铁矿石提炼而成,来源丰富,价格低廉。钢铁又称为铁碳合金,是铁(Fe)与碳(C)、硅(Si)、锰(Mn)、磷(P)、硫(S)以及其他少量元素(Cr、V等)所组成的合金。通过调节钢铁中各种元素的含量和热处理工艺(四把火:淬火、退火、回火、正火),可以获得各种各样的金相组织,从而使钢铁具有不同的物理性能。将钢材取样,经过打磨、抛光,最后用特定的腐蚀剂腐蚀显示后,在金相显微镜下观察到的组织称为钢铁的金相组织。钢铁材料的秘密便隐藏在这些组织结构中。
在Fe-Fe3C系中,可配制多种成分不同的铁碳合金,他们在不同温度下的平衡组织各不相同,但由几个基本相(铁素体F、奥氏体A和渗碳体Fe3C)组成。这些基本相以机械混合物的形式结合,形成了钢铁中丰富多彩的金相组织结构。常见的金相组织有下列八种:

一、铁素体

TANRONGYUα-FeJINGGEJIANXIZHONGXINGCHENGDEJIANXIGURONGTICHENGWEITIESUTI, SHUbccJIEGOU,CHENGDENGZHOUDUOBIANXINGJINGLIFENBU,YONGFUHAOFBIAOSHI。QIZUZHIHEXINGNENGYUCHUNTIEXIANGSI,JUYOULIANGHAODESUXINGHERENXING,ERQIANGDUYUYINGDUJIAODI(30-100 HB)。ZAIHEJINGANGZHONG,ZESHITANHEHEJINYUANSUZAIα-FeZHONGDEGURONGTI。TANZAIα-FeZHONGDERONGJIELIANGHENDI,ZAIAC1WENDU,TANDEZUIDARONGJIELIANGWEI0.0218%,DANSUIWENDUXIAJIANGDERONGJIEDUZEJIANGZHI0.0084%,YINERZAIHUANLENGTIAOJIANXIATIESUTIJINGJIECHUHUICHUXIANSANCISHENTANTI。SUIGANGTIEZHONGTANHANLIANGZENGJIA,TIESUTILIANGXIANGDUIJIANSHAO,ZHUGUANGTILIANGZENGJIA,CISHITIESUTIZESHIWANGLUOZHUANGHEYUEYAZHUANG。

二、奥氏体

TANRONGYUγ-FeJINGGEJIANXIZHONGXINGCHENGDEJIANXIGURONGTICHENGWEIAOSHITI,JUYOUMIANXINLIFANGJIEGOU,WEIGAOWENXIANG,YONGFUHAOABIAOSHI。AOSHITIZAI1148℃YOUZUIDARONGJIEDU2.11%C,727℃SHIKEGURONG0.77%C;QIANGDUHEYINGDUBITIESUTIGAO,SUXINGHERENXINGLIANGHAO,BINGQIEWUCIXING,JUTILIXUEXINGNENGYUHANTANLIANGHEJINGLIDAXIAOYOUGUAN,YIBANWEI170~220 HBS、 =40~50%。TRIPGANG(BIANSUGANG)JISHIJIYUAOSHITISUXING、ROURENXINGLIANGHAODEJICHUKAIFADEGANGCAI,LIYONGCANYUAOSHITIDEYINGBIANYOUFAXIANGBIANJIXIANGBIANYOUFASUXINGTIGAOLEGANGBANDESUXING,BINGGAISHANLEGANGBANDECHENGXINGXINGNENG。TANSUHUOHEJINJIEGOUGANGZHONGDEAOSHITIZAILENGQUEGUOCHENGZHONGZHUANBIANWEIQITAXIANG,ZHIYOUZAIGAOTANGANGHESHENTANGANGSHENTANGAOWENCUIHUOHOU,AOSHITICAINENGCANLIUZAIMASHITIDEJIANXIZHONGCUNZAI,QIJINXIANGZUZHIYOUYUBUYISHOUQINSHIERCHENGBAISE。

三、渗碳体

SHENTANTISHITANHETIEYIYIDINGBILIHUAHECHENGDEJINSHUHUAHEWU,YONGFENZISHIFe3CBIAOSHI,QIHANTANLIANGWEI6.69%,ZAIHEJINZHONGXINGCHENG(Fe,M)3C。SHENTANTIYINGERCUI,SUXINGHECHONGJIRENDUJIHUWEILING,CUIXINGHENDA,YINGDUWEI800HB。ZAIGANGTIEZHONGCHANGCHENGWANGLUOZHUANG、BANWANGZHUANG、PIANZHUANG、ZHENPIANZHUANGHELIZHUANGFENBU。

四、珠光体

YOUTIESUTIHESHENTANTIZUCHENGDEJIXIEHUNHEWUCHENGWEIZHUGUANGTI,YONGFUHAOPBIAOSHI。QILIXUEXINGNENGJIEYUTIESUTIHESHENTANTIZHIJIAN,QIANGDUJIAOGAO,YINGDUSHIZHONG,YOUYIDINGDESUXING。ZHUGUANGTISHIGANGDEGONGXIZHUANBIANCHANWU,QIXINGTAISHITIESUTIHESHENTANTIBICIXIANGJIANXINGRUZHIWEN,CHENGCENGZHUANGPAILIE。ANTANHUAWUFENBUXINGTAIYOUKEFENWEIPIANZHUANGZHUGUANGTIHEQIUZHUANGZHUGUANGTIERZHONG。

(1)片状珠光体:又可分为粗片状、中片状和细片状三种。
(2)球状珠光体:经球化退火获得,渗碳体成球粒状分布在铁素体基体上;渗碳体球粒大小,取决于球化退火工艺,特别是冷却速度。球状珠光体可分为粗球状、球状、细球状和点状四种珠光体。

五、贝氏体

SHIGANGDEAOSHITIZAIZHUGUANGTIZHUANBIANQUYIXIA,MsDIANYISHANGDEZHONGWENQUZHUANBIANDECHANWU。BEISHITISHITIESUTIHESHENTANTIDEJIXIEHUNHEWU,JIEYUZHUGUANGTIYUMASHITIZHIJIANDEYIZHONGZUZHI,YONGFUHAOBBIAOSHI。GENJUXINGCHENGWENDUBUTONG,FENWEILIZHUANGBEISHITI、SHANGBEISHITI(BSHANG)HEXIABEISHITI(BXIA)。LIZHUANGBEISHITIQIANGDUJIAODI,DANJUYOUJIAOHAODERENXING;XIABEISHITIJIJUYOUJIAOGAODEQIANGDU,YOUJUYOULIANGHAODERENXING;LIZHUANGBEISHITIDERENXINGZUICHA。BEISHITIXINGTAIDUOBIAN,CONGXINGZHUANGTEZHENGLAIKAN,KEJIANGBEISHITIFENWEIYUMAOZHUANG、ZHENZHUANGHELIZHUANGSANLEI。

(1)上贝氏体:上贝氏体特征是:条状铁素体大体平行排列,其间分布有与铁素体针轴平行的细条状(或细短杆状)渗碳体,呈羽毛状。
(2)下贝氏体:呈细针片状,有一定取向,较淬火马氏体易受侵蚀,极似回火马氏体,在光镜下极难区别,在电镜下极易区分;在针状铁素体内沉淀有碳化物,且其排列取向与铁素体片的长轴成55~60度,下贝氏体内不含孪晶,有较多的位错。
(3)粒状贝氏体:外形相当于多边形的铁素体,内有许多不规则小岛状的组织。当钢的奥氏体冷至稍高于上贝氏体形成温度时,析出铁素体有一部分碳原子从铁素体并通过铁素体/奥氏体相界迁移到奥氏体内,使奥氏体不均匀富碳,从而使奥氏体向铁素体的转变被抑制。这些奥氏体区域一般型如孤岛,呈粒状或长条状,分布在铁素体基体上,在连续冷却过程中,根据奥氏体的成分及冷却条件,粒贝内的奥氏体可以发生如下几种变化。
(i)全部或部分分解为铁素体和碳化物。在电镜下可见到弥散多向分布的粒状、杆状或小块状碳化物;
(ii)部分转变为马氏体,在光镜下呈综黄色;
(iii)仍保持富碳奥氏体。
粒状贝氏体中的铁素体基体上布有颗粒状碳化物(小岛组织原为富碳奥氏体,冷却时分解为铁素体及碳化物,或转变为马氏体或仍为富碳奥氏体颗粒)。羽毛状贝氏体,基体为铁素体,条状碳化物于铁素体片边缘析出。下贝氏体,针状铁素体上布有小片状碳化物,片状碳化物于铁素体的长轴大致是55~60度角。

六、 魏氏组织

TASHIYIZHONGGUOREZUZHI,YOUBICIJIAOCHAYUE60°DETIESUTIZHENPIANQIANRUGANGTIEDEJITIERCHENG。CUDADEWEISHIZUZHISHIGANGCAIDESUXING、RENXINGXIAJIANG,CUIXINGZENGJIA。YAGONGXIGANGJIARESHIYINGUOREERXINGCHENGCUJING,LENGQUESHIYOUKUAISUXICHU,GUTIESUTICHUYANAOSHITIJINGJIECHENGWANGZHUANGXICHUWAI,HAIYOUYIBUFENTIESUTICONGJINGJIEXIANGJINGNEIANQIEBIANJIZHIXINGCHENGBINGPAICHENGZHENZHUANGDUZIXICHU,ZHEIZHONGFENBUXINGTAIDEZUZHICHENGWEIWEISHIZUZHI。GUOREGUOGONGXIGANGLENGQUESHISHENTANTIYEHUIXINGCHENGZHENZHUANGZIJINGJIEXIANGJINGNEIYANSHENERXINGCHENGWEISHIZUZHI。

七、马氏体

TANZAIα-FeZHONGDEGUOBAOHEGURONGTICHENGWEIMASHITI。MASHITIYOUHENGAODEQIANGDUHEYINGDU,DANSUXINGHENCHA,JIHUWEILING,YONGFUHAOMBIAOSHI,BUNENGCHENGSHOUCHONGJIZAIHE。MASHITISHIGUOLENGAOSHITIKUAISULENGQUE,ZAIMsYUMfDIANZHIJIANDEQIEBIANFANGSHIFASHENGZHUANBIANDECHANWU。ZHEISHITAN(HEHEJINYUANSU)LAIBUJIKUOSANZHISHIYOUγ-FeDEJINGGE(MIANXIN)ZHUANBIANWEIα-FeDEJINGGE(TIXIN),JITANZAIγ-FeZHONGDEGURONGTI(AOSHITI)ZHUANBIANWEITANZAIα-FeZHONGDEGURONGTI,GUMASHITIZHUANBIANSHI“WUKUOSAN”DEGENJUMASHITIJINXIANGXINGTAITEZHENG,KEFENWEIBANTIAOZHUANGMASHITI(DITAN)HEZHENZHUANGMASHITI。

(1)BANTIAOZHUANGMASHITI:YOUCHENGDITANMASHITI。CHICUNDAZHIXIANGTONGDEXIMASHITITIAODINGXIANGPINGXINGPAILIE,ZUCHENGMASHITISHUHUOMASHITILINGYU;ZAILINGYUYULINGYUZHIJIANWEIXIANGCHADA,YIKEYUANSHIAOSHITIJINGLINEIKEYIXINGCHENGJIGEBUTONGQUXIANGDELINGYU。YOUYUBANTIAOZHUANGMASHITIXINGCHENGDEWENDUJIAOGAO,ZAILENGQUEGUOCHENGZHONG,BIRANFASHENGZIHUIHUOXIANXIANG,ZAIXINGCHENGDEMASHITINEIBUXICHUTANHUAWU,GUTAYISHOUQINSHIFAAN。

(2)ZHENZHUANGMASHITI:YOUCHENGPIANZHUANGMASHITIHUOGAOTANMASHITI,TADEJIBENTEZHENGSHI:ZAIYIGEAOSHITIJINGLINEIXINGCHENGDEDIYIPIANMASHITIPIANJIAOCUDA,WANGWANGGUANCHUANZHENGGEJINGLI,JIANGAOSHITIJINGLIJIAYIFENGE,SHIYIHOUXINGCHENGDEMASHITIDAXIAOSHOUDAOXIANZHI,YINCIPIANZHUANGMASHITIDEDAXIAOBUYI,FENBUWUGUIZE。ZHENZHUANGMASHITIANYIDINGFANGWEIXINGCHENG。ZAIMASHITIZHENYEZHONGYOUYIZHONGJIMIAN,TANLIANGYUEGAO,YUEMINGXIAN,QIEMASHITIYEYUEJIAN,TONGSHIZAIMASHITIJIANBANYOUBAISECANLIUAOSHITI。

(3)CUIHUOHOUXINGCHENGDEMASHITIJINGGUOHUIHUOHAIKEYIXINGCHENGSANZHONGTESHUDEJINXIANGZUZHI:

(i)回火马氏体:指淬火时形成的片状马氏体(晶体结构为体心四方)于回火第一阶段发生分解—其中的碳以过渡碳化物的形式脱溶—所形成的、在固溶体基体(晶体结构已变为体心立方)内弥散分布着极其细小的过渡碳化物薄片(与基体的界面是共格界面)的复相组织;这种组织在金相(光学)显微镜下即使放大到最大倍率也分辨不出其内部构造,只看到其整体是黑针(黑针的外形与淬火时形成的片状马氏体(亦称“α马氏体”)的白针基本相同),这种黑针称为“回火马氏体”。
(ii)回火屈氏体:淬火马氏体经中温回火的产物,其特征是:马氏体针状形态将逐步消失,但仍隐约可见(含铬合金钢,其合金铁素体的再结晶温度较高,故仍保持着针状形态),析出的碳化物细小,在光镜下难以分辨清楚,只有电镜下才可见到碳化物颗粒,极易受侵蚀而使组织变黑。如果回火温度偏上限或保留时间稍长,则使针叶呈白色;此时碳化物偏聚于针叶边缘,这时钢的硬度稍低,且强度下降。



(iii)回火索氏体:淬火马氏体经高温回火后的产物。其特征是:索氏体基体上布有细小颗粒状碳化物,在光镜下能分辨清楚。这种组织又称调质组织,它具有良好的强度和韧性的配合。铁素体上的细颗粒状碳化物越是细小,则其硬度和强度稍高,韧性则稍差些;反之,硬度及强度较低,而韧性则高些。

八、莱氏体

TIETANHEJINZHONGDEGONGJINGHUNHEWU,JITANDEZHILIANGFENSHU(HANTANLIANG)WEI4.3%DEYETAITIETANHEJIN,ZAI1480SHESHIDUSHI,TONGSHICONGYETIZHONGJIEJINGCHUAOSHITIHESHENTANTIDEJIXIEHUNHEWUCHENGWEILAISHITI,YONGFUHAOLdBIAOSHI。YOUYUAOSHITIZAI727℃SHIZHUANBIANWEIZHUGUANGTI,GUZAISHIWENSHILAISHITIYOUZHUGUANGTIHESHENTANTIZUCHENG。WEIQUBIEQIJIANJIANG727℃YISHANGDELAISHITICHENGWEIGAOWENLAISHITI(Ld),727℃YIXIA DELAISHITICHENGWEIDIWENLAISHITI(L'd)。LAISHITIDEXINGNENGYUSHENTANTIXIANGSI,YINGDUHENGAOSUXINGCHA。

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